With a population of about 23,000, Siwa, the most inaccessible of all Egypt's oasis until very recently, is also one of the most fascinating, lying some 60 feet below sea level. On the edge of the Great Sand Sea, its rich history includes a visit from Alexander the Great to consult the Oracle of Amun in 331 BC. Archaeologists, such as Liana Souvaltsis implied that the great military leader was buried here, but no real evidence has come from this.  The King of Persia led a 50,000 men army to the area to destroy the oracle, but the entire army was lost in the desert. 
The area has a nice climate, chilly in winter, hot in the summer and moderate in the spring and autumn. Lake Siwa to the west of the town is a large, saltwater lake. The area is famous for its dates and olives, and is one of the most beautiful landscapes. Siwa is also famous for its springs, of which there are approximately 1,000. 
Many women still wear traditional costumes and silver jewelry like those displayed in the Traditional Siwan House museum in the town center. In fact, the area is also well known for its crafts, particularly woven cloth, which is unique in Egypt



Set in a depression covering over 2000 sq. km., Bahareya Oasis is surrounded by black hills made up of ferruginous quartzite and Dolorite. Most of the villages and cultivated land can be viewed from the top of the 50-meter-high Jebel al-Mi'ysrah, together with the massive dunes which threaten to engulf some of the older settlements. 
The Oasis was a major agricultural center during the Pharaonic era, and has been famous for its wine as far back as the Middle Kingdom
Wildlife is plentiful, especially birds such as wheatears; crops (which only cover a small percentage of the total area) include dates, olives, apricots, rice and corn.
There are a number of springs in the area, some very hot, such as Bir ar-Ramla but probably the best is Bir al-Ghaba, about 10 miles north east of Bawiti (the largest village in the Bahariya Oasis with some 30,000 inhabitants.  The town center is modern, while outside the center are mud-brick houses.)  There is also Bir al-Mattar, a cold spring which pours into a concrete pool.
One of the major highlights one can never miss is a visit to the valley of the Golden Mummies.  A Festival of Mummies was discovered recently by an Egyptian team at Bahareya Oasis, located about 380 km west of the pyramids.  Four tombs were excavated, and found inside them were 105 mummies, many of them beautifully gilded.  These mummies, many sumptuously decorated with religious scenes, represent the very best of Roman-Period mummies ever found in Egypt.  These ancient remains are around 2000 years old, but they have withstood the test of time remarkably well. 
Moreover, near the Oasis is the Black desert, formed through wind erosion as the nearby volcanic mountains were spewed over the desert floor.
Finally, there are the ruins of a 17th Dynasty temple and settlement, and nearby tombs where birds were buried.



Located between Bahareya & Dakhla Oases, it lies about 320 KM North West of Dakhla Oasis, 170 KM south of Bahariya Oasis. Farafra, known as Ta-iht or the Land of the Cow in pharaonic times, is a single village. The oldest part of the village, on a hillside, is next to peaceful walled palm groves; a short ride away there are hot sulphur springs at Bir Setta and swimming at El-Mufid Lake.
Not very far from Farafra Oasis is the white desert, impressive limestone formations where the forces of erosion have created fantastic natural rock sculptures. The White Desert is a vast stretch of land in the Western Desert that borders Baharia Oasis to the north and Al-Farafra to the south. The snow-white desert is actually made of chalk that has been exposed for years to what geologists call "differential weathering," the erosion of soft particles that results in eerie protrusions of hard rock. This explains the very beautiful forms that now fill the White Desert including shapes like domes, minarets, castles, towers and so forth. There one can watch the fauna and flora and enjoy the mild winter weather.

  Qasr Al-Farafra


 The only real village in the Farafra Oasis, Qasr Al Farafra is a quiet and relaxing place, which represents most of what it has to offer to tourists. There are few tourist accommodations in the area, but that may change in the near future. Most of the description of the Farafra Oasis applies to the town itself



The Dakhla Oasis lies to the northwest of Kharga and is about 310 km to the southeast of Farafra. This oasis consists of 14 settlements and has a population of about 70,000 people. Dakhla is the farthest oasis out of Cairo and is considered one of Egypt's most beautiful oases as it has retained most of its culture.
The capital, Mut, named after the ancient goddess of the Theban Triad, houses the Museum of the Inheritance, a traditional house, with an intricate wooden combination lock. Rooms, with sculpted clay figures, are arranged to show different aspects of Dakhlan culture and family life. Al-Kasr, about 35 km. from Mut, was originally a Roman settlement which later became the medieval capital of Dakhla. The old town is a labyrinth of mud-walled alleys narrowly separating houses with elaborately-carved wooden lintels; there is also an Ayyubid mosque. Climb to the rooftop of the 10th century madrassa (school) for wonderful views of the surrounding area. Bir al-Gabel, a palm-fringed salt lake where you can camp and picnic, is on the road back to Mut.
Don’t miss the opportunity to visit the 1st-century al-Muzawaka tombs and Deir al Hagar, a temple which was originally dedicated to the Theban Triad and later rebuilt by the Romans. After exploring the temple, bathe in the hot sulphur spring nearby. Visit Bashendi to see Roman tombs and a factory where carpets are still woven with scenes of Dakhlan life. At nearby Balaat village, a trading post with ancient Nubia.



It is the biggest New Valley oasis, its modern city houses 60,000 people, including 1,000 Nubians who moved there after Lake Nasser construction. Outside the main center is the Temple of Hibis, built on the site of an 18th dynasty settlement of Saites, Persians and Ptolemies and is one of the few Persian monuments in Egypt. The 6th century BC temple is well-preserved with painted vultures and huge relieves of Darius greeting Egyptian gods on the outer walls. Ten kilometers away, the Necropolis of al-Bagawat contains 263 mud-brick chapels with Coptic murals, including the Chapel of Peace with images of Adam and Eve and the Ark on its dome and the Chapel of the Exodus with frescoes of pharaonic troops pursuing the Jews led by Moses, out of Egypt. Pharaonic monuments include the al-Huwaytah Temple which dates from 522 BC and the Temple of Amenebis.
The thermal springs at Bulaq and Nasser villages to the south, are famous for water temperatures of up to 43 C and reputed to be suitable for the treatment of rheumatism and allergies.
Further south is Baris Oasis, the second largest settlement in Kharga. Houses designed in traditional Nubian style by Hassan Fathy remain uninhabited- local people refused to live in them because of their similarity to tombs and building stopped in the late 1960s. Ancient monuments include the Temple of Dush, dedicated to Isis and Serapis. Its name derives from Kush, the ancient Sudanese capital which traded with Egypt along the Nile. Archeologists are still unearthing the ancient city of Kysis and elaborate system of clay pipes and abandoned Christian church, suggest that Kysis was abandoned when its underground springs dried up but the exact date remains a mystery.

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